Thursday, May 21, 2020
Death Penalty according to God in the Old Testament Christian church has been divided for many controversial topics because of issues such as self-center or lack of a deep analysis of the scriptures. Death penalty is one of those controversial topics relating the pro-life or pro-death argument. It is also known as capital punishment, and it is the ultimate punishment for extreme and sadistic delighting crimes. It is a message stating that there is a line that has been crossed according to society. In the Old Testament, God gives commands to cleanse the Earth from sin. However, is it human responsibility and power enough to decide whether to take a human life? The unjustified power that humans have attributed themselves to dictate death penalty violates the human existence that should be taken only by Divine Grace. In their book Ã¢â¬Å"The Death Penalty Debate,Ã¢â¬ John Howard Yoder, professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame and H. Wayne House, dean and professor of theology at Western Baptist College state that Ã¢â¬Å"there is no doubt that Yahweh encouraged, commanded, and personally enforced the death penalty during the Old Testament eraÃ¢â¬ (35). Deuteronomy 9:13, for example, commands to Ã¢â¬Å"purge the evil from among Human,Ã¢â¬ leading a belief that in order to aid the Earth, justice must be taken with humansÃ¢â¬â¢ own hands. However, basing the legal system on this passage, everyone would think that it is a commandment from God not to accept any Ã¢â¬Å"unpardonableÃ¢â¬ crime. Purification ofShow MoreRelatedCapital Punish Relating to The Old Testament Essay1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Why do some christians agree with the capital punishment? Some Christians feel that the Bible has spoken to the conflict, but many believe that the New Testament replaces the Old Testament law. Skimming through the Old Testament you can find many cases in which God orders the use of capital punishment, with the acts of God Himself. God was somehow involved directly or maybe indirectly, in the taking of life as a punishment for Israel or whomever threatened or harm the city of Israel. In GenesisRead MoreCapital Punishment Essay example710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCapital Punishment Lets keep society safe and give murderers what they deserve - the death penalty. In this essay I will hope to set out both sides of the argument, for and against Capital Punishment. The advantages and the disadvantages will be considered in conjunction with Christian teachings and belief. The Christian teachings, Old Testament and New Testament will also be compared with human reactions to the subject. From my research and analysis inRead MoreThe Importance Of Capital Punishment In The United States990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschair and lethal injection (Statistics, 2017). Among the 31 states who currently have death penalty laws, the State of Texas leads all other states in the number of prisoners executed (545) since 1976 (Statistics, 2017). While Texas adorns the dubious distinction of executing the most prisoners, the State of California surpasses all other states in the union with the number of inmates (744) awaiting execution on death row (Statistics, 2017). Although the State of California has the highest number ofRead More Capital Punishment and the Bible Essay1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCapital Punishment and the Bible Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Capital punishment has always been an arguable issue and for good reason. The Old Testament clearly calls for the death penalty on many occasions, whereas; many of the teachings of Jesus and others in the New testament readily denounce it.Ã Therefore, both advocates ands opponents of capital punishment have Biblical references to support their beliefs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Opponents use the creation story to show that all are created in Gods Read MoreEssay on Death Penalty Arguments519 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthat the death penalty should be re-introduced in to our society. They say that the murderer doesnt deserve to live while others argue the point. I will examine the arguments on both sides. If we turn to the bible for some advice whether or not to re-introduce the death penalty we can find help in the Old Testament. The covenant recorded in Genesis 9 says, whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed. This is the same as what the Old Testament teachesRead MoreWhy Georgia Should Stop The Death Penalty1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHideous crimes deserve the death penalty, or so the southern state of Georgia says. Consequently, Georgia holds one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s top records for carrying out capital punishment, with more than 950 implementations in its 250 year history of executions. Meanwhile, national scholars continuously debate death penalty pros and cons, and the debates ignite both passion and protests. Georgians opposing the punishment intensely explicate numerous reasons for overturning the law, including unreasonableRead MoreShould Capital Punishment be legal in the U.K?1022 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmore people wanted it in cases of murder with Police Officers or children involved. Capital Punishment is the most severe deterrent or retribution in existence and aims to deter future obligates from committing such heinous crimes for which the death penalty would be apportioned. The principal of this being that the Ã¢â¬Ëfuture criminalÃ¢â¬â¢ will be so afraid that the idea would be banished from their mind. This form of punishment also helps to protect society from such horrific crimes. Some Christians believeRead More Capital Punishment Essay - Christians and the Death Penalty1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand the Death Penalty nbsp; Almost all societies have dispensed with the principle of an eye for an eye, and considered it a step toward more enlightened civilization. Christians who cite an eye for an eye in their defense of the death penalty are usually unaware of the strict criteria that God imposed before it could be used to take human life. The Old Testament also allowed the death penalty for crimes that today we consider less than misdemeanors -- clearly, the Old Testament law is archaicRead MoreThe Free, Home Of The Brave925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessystem is a little messed up. We punish murderers by putting them on death row and killing them. The law says that it is wrong for people on the street to kill other human beings but somehow it is okay to kill someone because that person committed an unforgivable crime inside of a prison. I believe that the punishment is more effective if the offender is just locked away for the rest of their life without the possibility of parole. Death is an easy escape from their wrongdoings, but put a murderer/ sexRead MorePlatos Belief that the Human Soul is Immortal1297 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Old Testament, but does have one in the New Testament. It can be concluded that Christianity adopted yet another Platonist theory into its own doctrine. Prior to the usage of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s immortal soul theory, the Old Testament focused on absolute death. In Genesis 35:18, it is written that, Ã¢â¬Å"Her soul was departing (for she was dying).Ã¢â¬ This statement implies that once the body dies, the soul too disappears. Both the soul and body are entwined according to the Old Testament. In fact, the Old Testament
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Case 1 When good results are bad results Professor Ballistico is developing a research that is looking for the side effects of food additives in frozen food; the project itself is producing good publications. He is also a director of Foodcorp Centre for Food Science at BigCity University. Foodcorp also gave fund to the Bigcity University to set up the research about frozen food. Professor Ballistico recently founded out that the results from two of products Ã¢â¬Å"Longlife and RotneverÃ¢â¬ , may cause significantly human allergies of the addictiveÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ethical Issues: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Publish the right results of the experiment and be honestly about the human allergies, because the consumers have the right to know about the products they are buying and also can affect the sponsored to the University. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tell about the results he found to Foodcorp in privately, so they can find out a way to advise the public about the problem and prevent loss. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tell the university about the results, so them can make a decision to publish to results or not. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tell his employees about the whole situation. How he can prevent the problems in the future? Advice the stakeholders about the problem, so he can avoid the problem in the future and all of them together take an action about the problem and deal with it, creating a common sense that suits all, stakeholders, professor Ballistico and customers. I believe that the researches should be done about the problem and try to solve it. In case they donÃ¢â¬â¢t announce theShow MoreRelatedReflection Paper On Fast Food1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReflective Project - Jose Cervantes In our current world we are surrounded by all kinds of advertising, food, electronics and the occasional gimmick. Our economy revolves around consumers and adverts. A person would usually see a commercial about McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s new breakfast menu or quarter pounder, immediately the person would crave the new product and McDonalds would profit from the commercial. Worse case scenario the person decides to go to Burger King instead. Often, we the consumers are directedRead MoreLong Term Investment Decision Of The Low Calorie Foods Essay1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDecision Plan that managers in the low-calorie, frozen microwaveable food company follow in anticipation of raising prices when selecting pricing strategies for making products response to changes in price less elastic. The low calorie frozen microwaveable food companies are presently operating under a monopolistic market structure. There are many sellers of the same types of frozen foods but are distinguished by packaging and/or ingredients used. The frozen food companies are undergoing the high cost ofRead MoreFood Preservatives And Its Effects On Food1809 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFood Preservatives Food preservatives are described as natural means or man-made chemicals that are used in foods to prevent them from spoiling. A subgroup of preservatives are food additives, which differ from preservatives in the way that additives are not only used to lengthen the life of food, but also to improve taste and appearance. The ultimate goal of preservatives and additives are to improve the quality and lifespan of food by slowing down the decomposition process using chemicals orRead MoreEssay on Fast Food Industry968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrushed. Almost every aspect of life has become industrialized. Food and the way it is prepared is no exception to this world that always appears to be in fast forward. The fast food industry has revolutionized how and what people eat. The public has begun to consume more fast food and the problem is that people do not know what they are eating. If the concept of a nutritious meal is thrown out the window for the convenience of fast food then the health risks will outnumber any pros in favor of thatRead MoreFresh Food vs. Canned Food1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestasted produce from the fresh side like it came fresh picked out of the garden then compared to the taste of a canned produce that could have been sitting in a can full of water and oil for who knows how long. The look was simply unappealing to the limp, dull and soggy vegetable compared to the vibrant color, and crisp texture and overall taste of a fresh one. Eating is an activity that we as humans do at least two times a day. We live in a world where the variety of food is immense, and we are responsibleRead MoreThe Effects Of Food On Our Unhealthy Conditions1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageson the handling of the FDA s food protection. Furthermore, how food is being handled, is criticized of being overlooked on the health consequences. Chemical companies do not seem to have concerns for human and environment risks. Even though food production has improved to last longer and have quality taste, the United States should not allow the production of unhealthy foods because other countries ban some of the ingredients we use in food production and current food production practices cause manyRead MoreSkin Allergy Home Remedy887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrange of substances and conditions. These include pollens, dust, cosmetics, and animal hair, poisonous plants, serums, vaccines, and drugs; physical agents such as heat, cold and sunlight, as well as a variety of foods. Some foods like oranges, milk, eggs, wheat, fish and other sea foods, chocolates, tomatoes, and strawberries causes allergic reactions. The symptoms of skin allergy are listed below: Pain Irritations Skin inflammation Rash Wheals Pruritus Skin rash Oedema Urticaria SkinRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effects990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaging is causing major problems for doctors. Millions of middle schoolers are prescribed medications that drug developers never intended for anyone under 40. Doctors have to face the dilemma of giving children the medications and risk unknown future side affects or leaving conditions like high cholesterol untreated and risking a hart attack. This scenario is tragically all too common. How and why does this happen? Many try to explain away blaming genetics or thyroid. However, the only two geneticRead MoreObesity and Fast Food Essay887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbook Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser writes about the fast food industry. Schlosser tells the story of J.R. Simplot, the man behind McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s source for potatoes. He started his own business right out of the eighth grade, after dropping out. He started out small but eventually became one of the riches men in America. He owned then 160 acres of land to start off this business. He sold his potatoes to companies at first all natural. But he soon discovered that if you dry out the food it will keepRead MoreMSG: The Risky Taste Essay2483 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesFood additives have been around for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years. They have been used for a wide variety of purposes: to preserve food to keep it from spoiling, to enhance flavor, or the simple purpose of making food look more presentable to whoever is going to consume it. But the most prominent food additive is what is called M.S.G. This food additive, whose name is short for Monosodium Glutamate, has been in the U.S. for over 60 years. This is a food additive that has been known to kill
Introduction This reflective brief aims to discuss how and why I will apply my new learning to my routine practice; in particular, focusing on how this learning experience will enable me to show and promote care, compassion, commitment, courage, communication, and competence (6 Cs) within my everyday practice. Although the discussion revolves around these issues, it is consistently supported by literature and evidence. Reflective Discussion My most important features of learning within the module For me, the most important features of learning within the module are the inculcation of evidence-based practice of care through communities of learning, and the positive contribution that healthcare-related lifelong learning can extend to an empowering and person-centred care. We will write a custom essay sample on A Reflection: Application to Practice or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Houser and Oman (2011), evidence-based practice necessitates the incorporation of scientific evidence in the process of clinical decisions rather than sole reliance on experience or intuition. It is also a problem-solving approach to the practice of care, integrating the utilisation of current best evidence from well-designed researches, the expertise of the care professional, and care usersÃ¢â¬â¢ values and preferences. The concept has several useful implications for my personal practice. In the field where I am currently engaged, the evidence-based practice allows me to carry out my profession to promote and deliver care, utilising the supportive backdrop of theory and practice. At the heart of this backdrop is the way in which evidence-based interventions can help deliver positive outcomes to the practice of care. In other words, such learning is not simply cognitive or knowledge-based, but also affective and psychomotor (i.e. applying knowledge into practice). These are also embodied in Utley (2011) and Rice (2006). By offering a way for theory to support practice, evidence-based healthcare seems to allow the practitioners to incorporate affective and psychomotor aspects with a more rational, research-based approach. I have fully grasped the moduleÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of providing the opportunity to engage with the service users and their carers Ã¢â¬â their experiences and outlook Ã¢â¬â and integrating this goal to my professional values. I have thoroughly recognised the importance of this integration, as working with service users and their carers in a healthcare domain necessitates soaking my whole perspective into the care practice. The health practice has become a way of life where I provide care, compassion, courage, etc. which are required of me as a health care professional. This is because it has been a part of my daily routine and concerns. From this, I have come to understand that the care practice is more than a field or profession. LeiningerÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Culture Care informs us of care as the central, dominant, and unifying focus of nursing (De Chesnay and Anderson, 2008). The 6 Cs Care is first and foremost the primary duty of a health professional, and on which evidence-based practice must be focused. This idea is also embraced in Brooker and Waugh (2013) and Olsen, Goolsby, and McGinnis (2009). Care requires me to have an interest in the condition of service users, their aspirations, uncertainties, hopes and so on. It is not merely working with service users and seeing the work as an objective component of the care practice; but that the care practice requires traits and values beyond these, such as applying an ethical code and seeing the care user with dignity and respect. I would like to note that compassion is a concept that cannot be objectively measured. Rather, it is something that I can extend to a care user only if I have sufficient knowledge of their condition, the problems that bother them, their emotional state vis-a-vis their existing health condition (e.g. Department of Health, 2012). This is where we would find the value of clinical assessment, which must be efficiently carried out (Abbott, Braithwaite, and Ranson, 2014). This is also the reason why I need to communicate with them regularly or as needed, since only through constant interaction can I have adequate knowledge of their present condition; from which I can grow compassion towards them. Commitment hence results from this engagement to the care practice, which I believe is not an overnight process, but definitely requires routine. Watson (1999) describes commitment as a moral ideal aimed to preserve humanity. Courage takes place from such commitment, which enables the health professional to support and even campaign for the welfare of the service users and their carers; certainly a result of his care, compassion, communication, and commitment to the care practice in general. I would say that competence is a product of knowledge and practice of care being put together; it is an expression of evidence-based practice on which the module is focused. My important learning in this aspect is that these values are linked to ethical and moral code governing the care practice (Kelly and Tazbir, 2014). Has the new learning helped me reevaluate issues of dignity and respect? My new learning helped me reevaluate and better understand issues such as dignity and respect. This is by valuing the human person on a higher scale, viewing the care service as a channel for a person to regain his health and live normally again. This is also by looking at their ultimate recuperation as a foremost goal, including their mental, physical, emotional, and even spiritual well-being. This way, the care user is afforded dignity and respect, of which he is certainly worthy and which the health care professional must provide to him/her at all times and by all means. Treating the service user this way is concretely demonstrated in making him well-informed about his overall condition, the kind/nature of care he needs, and the like (Nolan, Hanson, and Grant, et al., 2007). My strengths for applying this learning to my practice The strengths I have for applying this learning to my practice are my sympathetic nature, my interactive character, and my ability to recognise accountability for issues involving the welfare of others. I believe that my being sympathetic will enable me to develop care and compassion (two of the 6 Cs) more easily. My interactive character connotes my propensity towards good communication (also one of the 6 Cs), which is definitely necessary in the care delivery. My ability to recognise accountability, on the other hand, will motivate me to pursue my goals (as a health care provider) with careful implementation of the care practice so that the care user will receive the most adequate level of necessary care (Barrick, 2009). The Intuitive-Humanist Model explains the link of intuition to the relationship between the nursing experience, the knowledge thus obtained from this relationship, and how it enhances the clinical decision-making process (Banning, 2007). Enabling me to demonstrate and promote the 6 Cs would require my knowledge of the care practice as the initial and necessary first step; and the next would be immersing in the health profession and knowing the issues/problems related to care usersÃ¢â¬â¢ health condition or those affecting the delivery of care, as well as the issues/problems faced by their carers. The idea of the whole point is that the care practice must be evidence-based, since if not, our potential to harm the service users will rise accordingly (e.g. Newell and Burnard, 2011). Opportunities and threats to applying my new learning An opportunity in applying my new learning to my routine practice is the acquired knowledge of evidence-based care practice and its incorporation into the 6 Cs: care, compassion, commitment, courage, communication, and competence. This is why the 6 Cs are involved/patched to the care practice, as the care practice is not merely a professional domain where one obtains a care service and where the care providers get paid for providing the needed care. There are also threats that may hinder the application of the 6 Cs in my health practice. These are inadequate care facilities and circumvented processes within the care units, which can both delay care delivery. According to Malloch and Porter-OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady (2010), evidence-based processes require the development of attitude and facilities in order to obtain real-time information that must be assessed, applied, and translated within the framework of the care circumstance. In this regard, inadequate care facilities can be overcome by pointing out the needed areas to be changed and/or resources to be supplied. Circumvented processes can be resolved by applying efficient methods, such as the Lean management method. It has been proved that Lean adoption produces viable results for the care organisation (Lighter, 2013; Zidel, 2006). A need to share my learning with others From completing this module, there is a need to share my learning with others. Such sharing will enable the care practice to develop further, especially if it is shared with colleagues. It can also improve health setting when shared within the job, since it can be evaluated this way. I may pass learning formally through health seminars where I am a speaker. There might also be a case that I would be invited to talk to a group of people about the care practice, in which I can share my learning about the module. The value of sharing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences about the care practice is in fact exemplified in Hinchliff, Norman, and Schober (2008) where the authors state that the care provider must facilitate the mutual knowledge sharing to others by contributing to their personal and professional learning experiences and development. Capossela and Warnock (2004) even discuss Ã¢â¬Ëshare to care,Ã¢â¬â¢ which describes how a group may be organised to care for someone who is seriously il l. It only demonstrates the importance of sharing the care experience to allow others to benefit for their own circumstances. The relationship between my routine practice, continuing professional development, and safe and effective care These concepts are interlinked and cannot be done without, and dismemberment of any will result in flawed care implementation. If safe and effective care could be achieved by simply doing what one has always done (caring for clients adequately), then it could quite easily be ensured. Furthermore, such relationship is also understood as one that leads to evidence-based practice. This is because it is through routine practice (from which the care provider gains learning and training everyday) (Gordon and Watts, 2011) that empirical evidence is established. Yammel and OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly (2013) even posit that routine practice is an essential part of a continuing professional development programme. From continuing professional development, the care professional is able to pursue lifelong learning and develop expertise about the field (Cleary, 2011). Safe and effective care, on the other hand, is the goal of the care user. On the point of view of evidence-based practice (Brooker and Waugh, 2013), it is crucial to ensure that service users get the most effective treatments and services and receive the best health outcomes. Together with available and adequate funding, cost-effective care services form the provision of clinically effective care. Conclusion This reflective discussion presents my learning experience from the module, supported by a range of literature. The evidence-based practice of care provides a basis for promoting and delivering an empowering and person-centred care. It is a field where I have necessarily obtained cognitive knowledge as well as affective learning and psychomotor application. This reflective discussion has presented what I consider the most important features of learning within the module. The new learning has helped me re-evaluate/better understand certain issues relating to the care user, such as dignity and respect of the human person. My strengths to applying this learning to my practice are my sympathetic nature, my interactive character, and my ability to recognise accountability. The 6 Cs provide opportunities for applying my new learning and humanising the care profession. There are however threats that may hinder effective care delivery from taking place, such as inadequate care facilities and circumvented processes within the care units. Measures to address them are also identified. I also see a need to share my learning with others, which the extant literature also supports. The relationship between my routine practice, continuing professional development, and safe and effective care is inter-connected, from which a flawed care practice might occur if such interconnectedness is lost. It is therefore my realisation to ensure the link between them. References Abbott, H., Braithwaite, W., and Ranson, M. (2014) Clinical Examination Skills for Healthcare Professionals. United States: MK Update Ltd. Banning, M. (2007) A Review of Clinical Decision Making: Models and Current Research. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2007 February 28. Barrick, I. (2009) Transforming Health Care Management: Integrating Technology Strategies. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Brooker, C. and Waugh, A. (2013) Foundations of Nursing Practice: Fundamentals of Holistic Care. St. Louis, MO: MOSBY Elsevier. Capossela, C. and Warnock, S. (2004) Share to Care: How to Organize a Group to Care for Someone Who is Seriously Ill. New York: Fireside Rockefeller Center. Cleary, M, et al. (2011) The Views of Mental health Nurses on Continuing Professional Development. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20 (1): 3561-3566. De Chesnay, M. and Anderson, B. A. (2008) Caring For the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice and Research. Second Edition. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Department of Health (2012) Compassion in Practice. Nursing, Midwifery and care Staff: Our Vision and Strategy. London: DOH. Gordon, J. and Watts, C. (2011) Applying Skills and Knowledge: Principles of Nursing Practice. Nursing Standard, 25 (33): 35-37. Hinchliff, S., Norman, S., and Schober, J. (2008) Nursing Practice and Health Care 5E: A Foundation Text. NW: CRC Press. Houser, J. and Oman, K. S. (2011) Evidence-based Practice: An Implementation Guide for Healthcare Organizations. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Kelly, P. and Tazbir, J. (2014) Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Lighter, D. RE. (2013) Basics of Health Care Performance Improvement: A Lean Six Sigma Approach. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Malloch, K. and Porter-OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady, T. (2010) Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Newell, R. and Burnard, P. (2011) Research for Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare. Second Edition. West Sussex: John Wiley Sons. Nolan, M., Hanson, E., Grant, G., and Keady, J. (2007) User participation in Health and Social Care Social Research: Voices, Values, and Evaluation. England: Open University Press. Olsen, L., Goolsby, W. A., and McGinnis, J. M. (2009) Leadership Commitments to Improve Value in Health Care: Finding Common Ground. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Rice, R. (2006) Home Care Nursing Practice: Concepts and Application. St. Louis, MO: MOSBY Elsevier. Utley, R. (2011) Theory and Research for Academic Nurse Educators: Application to Practice. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Watson, J. (1999) Nursing Ã¢â¬â Human Science and Human Care: A Theory of Nursing. London: Jones Bartlett Learning International. Yammel, J. and OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly, D. (2013) Epidemiology and Disease Prevention: A Global Approach. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Zidel, T. G. (2006) A Lean Guide to Transforming Healthcare: How to Implement Lean Principles in Hospitals, Medical Offices, Clinics and Other Healthcare Organizations. Milwaukee: American Society for Quality, Quality Press. How to cite A Reflection: Application to Practice, Essay examples
Friday, April 24, 2020
PART I Welcome online!. These are often the first words many teenagers hear when they come back home from school. For the past few years, the Internets distractions to teenagers has been a major social problem, and I have read many articles on students who are addicted to the Internet. Also, I have seen many people get involved in surfing on the net, and have seen their systematic lives deteriorate with their access to the Internet. This social issue has become even more serious as the great strides in technological advancements entice teenagers with newer temptations. Because of all the attention given to this issue, I have decided to research it and learn more about how the Internet distracts teenagers, and its effects on society. I already know that most teenagers have some sort of access to the Internet. I have always thought that the Internet is only a source of information and sometimes a source of entertainment, but after reading the frequent articles that show up on the newspapers about the usage of internet, I now know that most teenagers go online mainly to play games and to chat with other friends. I also personally know some people who claim that they are stuck in the net, and I have also recently discovered that todays teenagers, like myself, spend the most time surfing on the net instead of reading books or watching television. However, I know that there are many more causes of teenagers bondings with the Internet, and I hope to find out exactly what makes teenagers to become so dependent on it. PART II The question of the Internet being a distraction to teenagers is such a broad issue, in the sense that the internet has too many ways of distracting teenagers. I will, therefore, focus on two specific questions to learn about. First, I will find out what features on the Internet lure teenagers into it. For example, I know there are chatrooms which anyone can enter to talk to other people from all over the world. Secondly, I hope to find out how this attraction to the Internet can affect ones life so much as to get them addicted to it, and how it changes peoples daily lives. PART III In the Preliminary stages of my research, I discovered that it would be much different from those I have done in the past because the base of my search would not be encyclopedias or books. Although I knew that the library would produce little information on the subject I am researching on, I could not stop questioning the credibility of the sources from the Internet, and first went to the school library in the end of December. Entertainment on the Internet being a quite recent social topic, my first look into the books at the library was fruitless. Even after looking through the magazines that were available, I only found a minimal amount of information. My next and final reaction was to look into the Internet. The week after my first attempt of gathering information, I went to a web site with a variety of search engines and typed in the words Internet entertainment. The results were overwhelming at first. Over a hundred thousand web sites were found on the topic Internet entertainment, but I soon discovered that they all led to web sites that hosted Internet entertainment. This was when I noticed that I needed to go to a search site of newspaper and magazine articles. Then I went to the school library and went to a search engine site that was called SIRS. When I typed in the same words as before, I only got two articles. From the two, only one carried the information I was seeking for, and so I had to search in other sites such as PROQUEST DIRECT, TIME magazine search, NY TIMES and SCMP search. Even after going to the biggest search sites on the Internet, I was only able to find four written sources and was frustrated because I knew that there are a lot more articles dealing with the types of entertainment found on the Internet. However, it was after the end of my search for written sources when I realized that I
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Poverty and Voter Participation Free Online Research Papers A democratic form of government is unique in that all citizens have an equal vote or voice in shaping policy or electing government officials. The population participates effectively in the determination of their lives for themselves either directly or through their elected representatives. Equal opportunity is a central component of democracy. Each individual, whether rich or poor, strong or weak, has the same chance to participate and influence governmental action. Without this participation, a democracy is neither representative, nor efficient. When considering democratic participation, one cannot help but wonder if all people truly do have the same opportunity to contribute. Equality in democracy appears to be a concept that has been buried by the seemingly more important attributes such as wealth, power, and influence. Have the poor become so disenfranchised that they no longer care to play a part in democratic processes? This leads me to my research question: how does poverty affect democratic participation? In searching for the answer to this query, I will examine possible factors that could explain why the poor may not be as capable or willing as the rich to shape public policy or elect officials. A review of the voting trends of poorer peoples as compared to those of the wealthy in various democratic nations throughout the world will help me to understand which economic group is more likely to show up and contribute on Election Day. It is my hypothesis that poverty results in decreased engagement in democratic p rocesses. Certain unfulfilled needs of the poor put them at a disadvantage as compared to the affluent when it comes to democratic participation. Whether it concerns the human bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s most basic needs such as food and shelter or more developed needs such as education, the well-off clearly are steps ahead of the less fortunate. I will spend the next several paragraphs explaining how such essentials impact the political input of those stricken by poverty. Human beings have certain basic needs. Until these are fulfilled, all other needs are not of importance. Food is one such necessity. The poor may not always have ready access to nourishment and thus are less concerned with more distant matters such as elections and policy choice. Without the energy that is provided by food, individuals cannot hope to function effectively. It is in the face of such dire straits that democratic participation is not of great concern. What is worse is the fact that the little access to food the poor have is insecure. The underprivileged must rely on charity, handouts, or begging for their sustenance (Sibanda, 2006, p.7). The constant threat of starvation will draw anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s attention away from democratic contribution. The wealthy, on the other hand, have no need to worry about where their next meal will come from and thus can focus their attention towards matters of political importance. On the same level of importance of food is the matter of shelter. Ã¢â¬Å"Not shelter for its own sake, but adequate shelter conducive to a healthy and comfortable pursuit of life. Many people in Africa are living in the most shocking conditionsÃ¢â¬ (Sibanda, 2006, p.7). Poor living conditions do not assist in any way to a desire to participate in any kind of political activity. A disadvantaged man or woman living in the Democratic Republic of Congo is unlikely to travel to the voting station when his or her home is in constant danger of falling apart. An education is vital to any person who wishes to make beneficial political decisions. Being educated not only increases oneÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of gaining access to all kinds of resources, it allows one to avoid exclusion from the governmental processes of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. If one wishes to exercise oneÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, one must be educated about those rights. Ã¢â¬Å"It is not enough to teach people how to vote and remind them every so often of their basic rights as relates to the election process, people need to be educated about the entire political systemÃ¢â¬ (Putnam, 2006, p.1). Often times the poor are not privileged to have access to a meaningful education. Consequently, they frequently do not comprehend where they stand in the political system beyond the vote. It is in formal educational structures that this kind of information is made available, resulting in a better informed upper class. This leads one to believe that the wealthy are more likely to engage in democratic participation. It is an unfortunate fact that many of the democratic nations in Africa spend more on defense than they do education. Fortunately, efforts are being made to remedy this problem. In South Africa, for example, there is an ongoing campaign with the goal of informing the public of their rights and how they can actively participate in the democratic processes. (Sowman. 2006. p.6) Health and medical needs are other factors that could lead to less governmental contribution by the poor. The poor in many democratic nations throughout the world are not provided with adequate health services. Issues of distance and cost result in the exclusion of provisions for the financially disadvantaged. Additionally, public hospitals are unable to give necessary treatment to those unable to afford private care. (Abelson. 2002. p. 27) Clearly, people suffering from an ailment or who have questionable health are not likely to take part in democratic functions. Mothers and fathers do not wish to leave their sick and dying children so that they may vote in an election. Ã¢â¬Å"Even as people recognize the failing of their political institutions in providing for their needs and even if they are fully aware of their rights and how to exercise them, they are disinclined to do so if they are sick or their families are sick all the timeÃ¢â¬ (Sibanda. 2006. p. 8) The poor suffer another setback as they may not have access to information on the actions and processes of their government. Government headquarters are typically in urban areas which may be a great distance from the rural poor. For those living in shacks many miles away from major cities, the democratic government may be viewed as a distant entity that does not pertain to their simple lives. This could decrease any and all motivation to make their presence felt on the government. Meanwhile, the wealthy living in or around these urban areas are likely to participate as they feel more directly impacted by elections, decisions, policies, etc. A final setback experienced by those living in poverty that could hinder their democratic participation is a language barrier. In numerous African democratic nations, Ã¢â¬Å"language continues to be the most important vehicle of exclusion in democratic participation in Africa. A significant proportion of the African population does not use the colonial language as a means of communicationÃ¢â¬ (Sibanda. 2006. p.10) This limits participation to those sufficiently fluent in the colonial language. This group tends to be the more affluent members of society. The poor are unable to take an active part in the democratic system as the system is based on a language unknown to the needy. This is a sad truth as these people are excluded from the political process despite being the ones most affected by the governmental actions. All of these setbacks would lead one to believe that the poor in most democratic nations throughout the world participate significantly less than the wealthy in governmental affairs. Nevertheless, this has proven not to be the case. It is true that the poor demonstrate less desire to engage in democratic participation in some nations. In the United States, for example, only 55 to 60 percent of eligible voters visit the voting stations to do perform their democratic duty. (Arnold. 2004. p.1) Of these eligible voters that participate, less than five percent are below the poverty line. (Arnold. 2004. p. 1) This confirms that in the United States of America, the economically wealthy are more active participants in democratic processes. However, this finding does not apply to all democracies on Earth. An example of this is demonstrated by the Philippines, where those classified as lower class comprise 60 percent of all voters. (Coronel. 2004. p. 1) Beginning in 1998, the poor Filipino vote played a significant role in the outcome of the presidential elections. A poll determined that, Ã¢â¬Å"class, rather than age, gender, or geography determined the voteÃ¢â¬ (Coronel. 2004. p. 1) Why is it that in the Philippines the poor are so eager to participate democratically while those of the same class level in America and African democracies seem to care so little? In the Philippines, elections are viewed as games of chance. Voters can either win or lose. Because they have so little opportunity to win in other facets of life, the poor in this nation choose to take advantage of democratic systems to make their voices heard. (Coronel. 2004. p. 5) Elections to them are the only legitimate means to choose a leader; thus, they passionately engage in the process. Ã¢â¬Å"The voter turnout among the poor in the Philippines has historically been higher than among the more affluent classesÃ¢â¬ (Coronel. 2004. p. 5). The election game of chance results in both a valid system as well as a source of entertainment. For the poor that do engage in democratic participation, one must wonder what values they embrace, how they are influenced, and what they look for in government and leadership. When it comes to choosing candidates, the poor seek an individual who is educated, has experience, a good track record, and an effective political platform. Wealth and power are not necessarily attractive qualities of candidates. Rather, honesty, responsibility, willingness to help, and an overall goodness of character are desired leadership traits. (Chua. 2004. p. 6) What influences the economically misfortunate in their democratic participation? Ã¢â¬Å"The most important sources of influence of the poor are, in declining order: the media, the family, the church, and political parties. Surveys come last on the listÃ¢â¬ (Chua. 2004. p. 6) There is a general distrust of surveys and a belief that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s vote should be based on the qualifications and history of the candidate. The media holds the most influence as it provides information about the candidates on a mass scale. The media allows the poor to observe the behavior, manner of speaking, and get an overall sense of the personality of those running for office. It is typically a trait of poor families to agree on election choices. Hence, the family is of great influence when it comes to democratic participation. Why do the poor in some democratic nations take such an active role in government while the poor in other such countries remain idle? The degree of poverty can provide an explanation. South Africa, a democratic nation, millions of citizens live in conditions unfit for even the lowliest of creatures. All of the factors discussed earlier that could hinder democratic participation combine in such an environment to make it impossible to go protest a policy or listen to a political debate. Thus, democratic participation is particularly unlikely to take place among the poor in such a region. (Everatt. 2003. p. 14) On the other hand, Mexico, another democratic nation experiences higher participation among the poor in terms of voting and seeking policy reform. Although those living in poverty in this country still must endure atrocious living conditions and are in dire need, the state of poverty is not quite as bad compared to a country like South Africa. The average household income in Mexico is greater than that of South Africa and the nation also enjoys a lower percentage of its total population living in poverty as compared to its African cousin. (UNICEF. 2006) The resources that a democratic government provides to its constituency is another possible explanation for the difference in democratic participation among the poor in various nations. Public health, education, and welfare services are all likely to affect the poorÃ¢â¬â¢s ability or willingness to contribute to their government. With regards to health, a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s life expectancy, infant mortality rate, accessibility to drinking water, and government financed vaccines and immunizations are clear indicators of the services provided to the public. Germany enjoys greater democratic participation among the poor than a nation such as Guatemala. (UNICEF. 2006) Germany also shows a higher life expectancy, lower infant mortality rate, greater access to drinking water, and more government financed health care. Thus, Guatemalans are more concerned about the health status of themselves and their families, reducing their opportunity to participate democratically. The provision of education by democratic governments also seems to influence the poorÃ¢â¬â¢s desire or ability to chip in with regards to politics. With a higher literacy rate, school enrollment ratio, and access to internet, it is no wonder Iceland has greater democratic participation among the poor than the nation of Jamaica. (UNICEF. 2006) The Icelandic governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s provision of more efficient public schooling puts this country at a clear advantage when it comes to the ability or desire of the economically disadvantaged to vote, protest, or decide policy. The Jamaicans, with a smaller number of educated poor, experience less democratic participation as a result. I have reached the conclusion that poverty, for the most part, does place individuals at a disadvantage when it comes to participating in democratic processes. Lack of adequate food, shelter, education, and access to information, in addition to language barriers, all act as hindrances to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to contribute to democracy. There are nations in which the voting turnout and participation of the poor are greater than that of the affluent, but these are rate. The severity of poverty as well as the provision of public services and goods by democratic governments are factors that explain why some democracies experience greater participation among the poor. The more severe the poverty, the less likely the poor are to make their impact felt on government. The more a democracy provides public needs such as education and health care, the more likely the poor are to contribute. It is my opinion that a nation can claim to be a democracy, but until the poor population is equally as capable as the wealthy to participate, the democracy is false. The poor have a voice that deserves to be heard. Research Papers on Poverty and Voter Participation19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeBringing Democracy to AfricaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesQuebec and CanadaThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseResearch Process Part One
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Aaron Burr - Biography and the Duel with Hamilton Aaron Burr is mostly remembered for a single violent act, the fatal shooting of Alexander Hamilton in their famous duel in New Jersey on July 11, 1804. But Burr was also involved in a number of other controversial episodes, including one of the most disputed elections in American history and a peculiar expedition to the western territories that resulted in Burr being tried for treason. Burr is a puzzling figure in history. He has often been portrayed as a scoundrel, a political manipulator, and a notorious womanizer. Yet during his long life Burr had many followers who considered him a brilliant thinker and a gifted politician. His considerable skills allowed him to prosper in a law practice, win a seat in the U.S. Senate, and nearly attain the presidency in a startling feat of deft political gamesmanship. After 200 years, BurrÃ¢â¬â¢s complicated life remains contradictory. Was he a villain, or simply a misunderstood victim of hardball politics? Early Life of Aaron Burr Burr was born in Newark, New Jersey, on February 6, 1756. His grandfather was Jonathan Edwards, a famous theologian of the colonial period, and his father was a minister. Young Aaron was precocious, and entered the College of New Jersey (present day Princeton University) at the age of 13. In the family tradition, Burr studied theology before becoming more interested in the study of law. Aaron Burr in the Revolutionary War When the American Revolution broke out, the young Burr obtained a letter of introduction to George Washington, and requested an officers commission in the Continental Army. Washington turned him down, but Burr enlisted in the Army anyway, and served with some distinction in a military expedition to Quebec, Canada. Burr did later serve on WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s staff. He was charming and intelligent, but clashed with WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s more reserved style. In ill health, Burr resigned his commission as a colonel in 1779, before the end of the Revolutionary War. He then turned his full attention to the study of the law. Burrs Personal Life As a young officer Burr began a romantic affair in 1777 with Theodosia Prevost, who was 10Ã years older than Burr and also married to a British officer. When her husband died in 1781, Burr married Theodosia. In 1783 they had a daughter, also named Theodosia, to whom Burr was very devoted. BurrÃ¢â¬â¢s wife died in 1794. Accusations always swirled that he was involved with a number of other women during his marriage. Early Political Career Burr began his law practice in Albany, New York before moving to New York City to practice law in 1783. He prospered in the city, and established numerous connections that would prove useful in his political career. In the 1790s Burr advanced in New York politics. During this period of tension between the ruling Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans, Burr tended not to align himself too much with either side. He was thus able to present himself as something of a compromise candidate. In 1791, Burr had won a seat in the U.S. Senate by defeating Philip Schuyler, a prominent New Yorker who happened to be the father in law of Alexander Hamilton. Burr and Hamilton had already been adversaries, but BurrÃ¢â¬â¢s victory in that election caused Hamilton to hate him. As a senator, Burr generally opposed the programs of Hamilton, who was serving as secretary of the treasury. Burrs Controversial Role in the Deadlocked Election of 1800 Burr was the running mate of Thomas Jefferson in the presidential election of 1800. JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s opponent was the incumbent president, John Adams. When the electoral vote produced a deadlock, the election had to be decided in the House of Representatives. In the prolonged balloting, BurrÃ utilized his considerable political skills and nearly pulled off the feat of bypassing Jefferson and gathering enough votes to win the presidency for himself. Jefferson finally won after days of balloting. And in accordance with the Constitution at the time, Jefferson became president and Burr became vice president. Jefferson thus had a vice president he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t trust, and he gave Burr virtually nothing to do in the job. Following the crisis, the Constitution was amended so the scenario of the 1800 election could not occur again. Burr was not nominated to run with Jefferson again in 1804. Aaron Burr and the Duel With Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr had been conducting a feud since BurrÃ¢â¬â¢s election to the Senate more than 10Ã years earlier, but HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks on Burr became more intense in early 1804. The bitterness reached its climax when Burr and Hamilton fought a duel. On the morning of July 11, 1804 the men rowed across the Hudson River from New York City to a dueling ground at Weehawken, New Jersey. Accounts of the actual duel have always differed, but the result was that both men fired their pistols. HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s shot did not strike Burr. Burrs shot struck Hamilton in the torso, inflicting a fatal wound. Hamilton was brought back to New York City and died the next day. Aaron Burr was portrayed as a villain. He fled andÃ actually went into hiding for a time, as he feared being charged with murder. Burrs Expedition to the West The once-promising political career of Aaron Burr had been stalled while he served as vice president, and the duel with Hamilton effectively ended any chance he may have had for political redemption. In 1805 and 1806 Burr plotted with others to create an empire consisting of the Mississippi Valley, Mexico, and much of the American West. The bizarre plan had little chance for success, and Burr was charged with treason against the United States. At a trial in Richmond, Virginia, which was presided over by Chief Justice John Marshall, Burr was acquitted. While a free man, his career was in ruins, and he moved to Europe for several years. Burr eventually returned to New York City and worked at a modest law practice. His beloved daughter Theodosia was lost in a shipwreck in 1813, which further depressed him. In financial ruin, he died on September 14, 1836, at the age of 80, while living with a relative on Staten Island in New York City. Portrait of Aaron Burr courtesy of New York Public Library Digital Collections.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Importance of Organization culture to organizations - Essay Example Organizational Culture refers to a pattern of learned behaviors that is shared and passed on among the members of an organization. It comprises of the various assumptions, values, beliefs, norms, rituals, language, etc. that people in an organization share. Organizational culture can be thought of as an evolutionary process that has been established, accepted and internalized over a period of time, by a majority of members of the organization. Fred Luthans defined culture as Ã¢â¬Å"the acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior.Ã¢â¬ Culture helps people to interact and communicate with other members of the society. Cultural traits are acquired gradually over a period of time. The differences in values and beliefs held by people all over the world make adjustments and interaction with people belonging to other cultures very difficult for some. To be successful in the global economy, it is important for all managers to be sensitive to the differences between them. People orientation is one of the characteristics of Organization culture. This is one thing that is lacking at Camford University.